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What Is The Calligraphy ?

Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a pen, ink brush, or other writing instrument.

A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as

"the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner”.
Mongolian calligraphy is the technique of handwriting in the Classical Mongolian script, which comprises ninety letters connected vertically by continuous strokes to create words. The letters are formed from six main strokes, known as head, tooth, stem, stomach, bow and tail, respectively. Almost all civilizations that practice writing have developed an art around calligraphy. Certainly some are better known and developed than others. 
Among the well-known calligraphy are: Japanese calligraphy, Hebrew calligraphy and Arabic calligraphy.
If we all have in mind images of Japanese or Arabic calligraphy, we hear less about the Mongolian calligraphy which nevertheless represents a very important part in the history of calligraphy.
The great diversity of writings from which we can draw, reflects the psychology of peoples. They are the traces left by men as they travel, complex paths taken over time and the ups and downs of history, big or small.
Historically, the calligraphy was a sign of good education and high cultural level.
Nowadays, with computers and the Internet, we might think that manual writing is obsolete but it is not. An expression of body and mind, calligraphy fascinates. Unlike cold and impersonal e-mails, it is the way to convey much more than information. The manual transcription, like a seismograph, reveals the human soul.
If we put history aside for a moment, what do we hear today when we talk about calligraphy?


Japanese Calligraphy

Japanese calligraphy is a traditional art of writing ideograms with brush and ink. This art is very old and has been practiced for over 3000 years. Originally born in China, calligraphy was introduced to Japan, Taiwan, Korea

and Vietnam along with Chinese writing.
Over the centuries, calligraphy has become one of the most important arts in Asian culture.
In the Japanese language, the word calligraphy is called Shodo, which literally means the way of writing. Unlike European calligraphy, shodo is not seen solely as a simple writing medium or decorative art form. In Japan, the practice of calligraphy is considered to help to achieve longevity and the control body and mind.
Buddhist monks use calligraphy as a form of meditation.


Calligraphy In Arabic Language

one could even speak of Arab-Perso-Ottoman calligraphy. This art, which has also transcribed other languages that have adopted the same alphabet (such as Persian or Turkish), therefore invites us on a real journey through history.
Did you know that before the 7th century Arabic letters already existed?
However, they were roughly carved most of the time in stone. Arabic was then a language of oral use.
It is really with the installation of the Muslim era and the need for administrative

transcript that the written word will develop and from there, the art of calligraphy begins to emerge.


Hebrew Calligraphy

has always played a fundamental role in Hebraic civilization. According to an old mystical tradition the world itself was created by God from the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This is why, even today,
special care is taken in the writing of the Pentateuch scrolls, intended for ritual use.

They are made only on parchments specially prepared by professional scribes, using goose quill and indelible ink.

The profession of scribe requires a long training, because the writing of sacred texts is governed by specific rules
concerning the shape of the letters, their spacing and their decorative flourishes.

Before drawing the calligraphies and particularly the divine names, the scribe must purify himself in a ritual bath. But it was not until the Middle Ages that the Jews of Andalusia, under Arab influence,

began to practice calligraphy as know it today.

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Chineese Calligraphy

is distinguished by the originality and the richness of Chinese characters.

Thus Chinese calligraphy allows a very wide field of expression.
The most famous Chinese calligraphy is practiced with a brush. Chinese schoolchildren learn to calligraphy characters with a pen or a fountain pen. Brush calligraphy is practiced on rice or silk paper.

The material of a calligrapher is called the four treasures of the master’s cabinet.

These are the brush, paper, ink and ink stone. The ink is in the form of a stick which is rubbed on the ink stone with water to obtain fluid ink, this method does not allow all the desired densities.

A good calligraphy was traditionally a reflection of a literate’s level of culture.
A good doctor had to be a good calligrapher and the imperial competitions to become a civil servant put more

emphasis on the calligraphy of the candidate than on the content of the copy !
The history of Chinese writing (over 3000 years) has allowed the development of many calligraphic styles. Added to this are the different way if drawing characters: on average 3 per character. The calligrapher therefore already has a
wide range of possibilities. He can also play with the intensity of the brush strike to express his emotions. In short, the message that Chinese calligraphy can convey is very broad. Some even go as far as complete abstraction.


Latin Calligraphy

is largely based on a fruitful history spanning several millennia.The practice of Latin calligraphy has traditionally been associated with the copying of manuscripts by Christian monks.

For them, it was much more than a job: it was a form of prayer. At this time, calligraphy required a
great concentration and a certainty of the gestures acquired by a long practice and probably a hygiene of life going to asceticism. Until the end of the Middle Ages, calligraphy was a religious activity. It has evolved with cultural influences, commercial and technical innovations. Depending on the medium used, Latin calligraphy is practiced

with a stylus, a reed pen, a feather or a brush.

Tibetan Calligraphy

is a calligraphy that flourished at the time when Indian, Chinese, Tibetan and Gandharan scholars translated texts from Sanskrit Buddhist literature and gathered in Tibet.
In the tradition of Tibetan and Sanskrit writing, the pen is made of bamboo and the making of it requires some experience. The quality of the calligraphy depends on that of the pen.

The cut is different depending on whether you write Sanskrit or Tibetan, upper case or lower case.

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